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The German columnist of the early 20 th century, George Geinzen, compared old Chernivtsi with a ship of pleasure with a Ukrainian team, Gerrnan officers, and Jewish passengers aboard, a ship under the Austrian flag that was incessantly between the West and East. It is hard to imagine something more chimerical and unstable than a company of a Ukrainian, German and Jew aboard the same ship under the sails of tolerance! However, the reality of Bukovyna was exactly like that. The outlines of this ship sometimes appear before the eyes of an inquisitive traveler even today.

The Bukovynian Slavs got into Kyiv’s political orbit during first Riuriks, and became finally part of Kyivan Rus under Prince Volodymyr the Great. From the mid-14 th century this land, under the name of Shypynska, was under the power of Hungarian kings who were replaced by Moldavian rulers. In 1408 Moldavian Prince Alexander the Kind issued a deed, which mentioned the important trade center of Chernovtsy. Many researchers consider that the name could originate from the boyar family of Chorny who were the owners of the lands over the Prut River. This generous land always attracted various invaders. In June 1713 Turkish troops entered Bukovyna and stayed there till September 2, 1774, when Europe was partitioned and the Austrian epoch came into being. In the course of the ensuing 150 years Chernivtsi, a semi-village with clay huts, turned into a fine city. It happened so that the beginning of the revolution of 1848 coincided in time with the completion of building the town hall (engineer Adolf Marin, architect Andreas Mikulich). While laying the cornerstone in 1843, golden ducats and a memorial document were enclosed in a special niche. 126 stone footsteps lead to the town hall’s tower. For a long time its balcony served as an observation post for possible fires.

In Austrian times the tower’s spire was crowned with the Austrian double-headed eagle of gilded copper. The luster of this “bird” could be seen from far away on sunny days. During World War I Russian troops occupied the city and ordered to dismantle the “bird,” however, the inhabitants were not in a hurry to replace one double-headed bird with another. Today, following an old tradition, a local musician goes upstairs and blows the trumpet, playing the melody of “Marichka,” a popular song of the 1960s.

In 1900-1901, on the right of the entrance to the town hall, sprang up the imposing three-storied building of the management of Bukovynian saving-bank (architect M.Aizenberg). It is considered one of the most exquisite secession memorials in Central Eastern Europe. The upper part of the facade is decorated with a majolica panel depicting allegorical figures that symbolize economic prosperity of the land and the Danube monarchy as a whole. Others believe that these figures personify the provinces of the empire. The structure is distinguished for its beautiful interiors, which virtuously combine sculpture, painting, stucco work, stained-glass windows, and artistic metalwork. Among the stained-glass windows there is a rare representation of the historical coat of arms of Bukovynian Duchy: the head of an aurochs on a red-blue shield with stars disposed opposite the head. Today it is Bukovynian Art Museum (10 Central Square) whose collection contains works of art embracing the period from the Turkish times to our days, icons of the 17 th-20 tr centuries, local works of decorative and applied arts of the 19 th-20 th centuries.

The facade of the Romanian People’s House (9 Central Square) is decorated with female figures of caryatids supporting the cornice. Today it is occupied by several public institutions, in particular “Mihail Eminescu” Romanian culture society, which organizes folklore festivals, and decorating prominent figures of Romanian culture of Bukovyna. A memorial plaque on the facade reminds one of the historical traditions of the Romanian community’s cultural life in Chernivtsi, and informs that the famous Romanian composer Ciprian Porumbescu (1853-1883) performed in this building.

At the intersection of the square and University Street stands a three-storied stone building, which was well known during the Austrian time as “Under the Black Eagle” hotel (7 Central Square). From 1855 to 1865 its hall served as a stage for many theatrical plays performed by guest companies. One of the best known guests of the hotel – lieutenant of the emperor’s army, Yuriy Fedkovych -became acquainted with the works of Taras Shevchenko for the first time while staying at the hotel. An appropriate memorial plaque reports of this fact.

The stone building under No.5 crowned with a graceful cupola became famous due to one of its residents. The most honored burgomaster of Chernivtsi of the Austrian period, Baron Anton Kokhanovsky, who held the post from 1866 to 1905, resided at this building at the turn of the 20 th century. Recently a memorial plaque has been installed on the facade in memory of the eminent citizen.

Olga Kobylianska Street attracts citizens and guests by its romantic legends. First it was called Molodiivska, since it led to the suburban village of the same name. In 1786, when it was decided to build a hotel and the tavern “Under Three Crowns”at the corner of the street, they first had to fell trees and to uproot stumps. Two-and three-storied stylish stone structures appeared in the street at the beginning of the 20 th century. Named Panska (Lordly) it was paved and turned into a favorite place for strolls and acquaintances. According to local legends it was scrubbed with soap at daybreaks. At the entrance stood a policeman with a stick who beat any sloven with dirty feet. The most notable among the buildings in this street is the sumptuous stone structure under No. 2 with a tower, which appeared in 1898 and was named “Three Crowns.” It was reminiscent of the “Under Three Crowns” establishment from which the building up of the street began. In modern times the elite coffee-house “Habsburg” was located in this street as well. Its interiors did not yielded to those of Viennese or Parisian counterparts and fully answered the monarchic name. Today it is the office of the National Bank of Ukraine.

The facade of the two-storied building (23 0. Kobylianska St.) is decorated with the image of St. Florian, patron of firemen. On the wall, at the socle level, there is a bas-relief representing an elderly man with a cane. The inscription says that the well-known Jewish writer Moses Altman lived in this building in 1961-1981.

The Polish People’s House (36 O. Kobylianska St.) was founded on February 1, 1902. In 1904 it was reconstructed by the architect Franciszek Szkowron, and its hall was decorated by the engineer Conrad Gurecki. In Soviet times national-cultural institutions were forbidden so the building was used as a cinema and the regional library, and later, as a musical school. A memorial plaque with the sculpture of Adam Mickiewicz in high relief (sculptor Yu. Mayakovsky, 1898) is the only surviving relic of the former magnificent decor.

The German People’s House (53 O.Kobylianska St.) was built on money of the Bukovynian Germans in 1910. It has an original fagade in which Gothic elements are reinterpreted in the spirit of secession. Today the ground floor of the right wing is occupied by the Society of Austro-German culture “Wiedergeburt.” In the mid-19 th century the Armenian community of Chernivtsi matured enough to have its own temple. The construction of the church started in 1869, and in October 1875 it was solemnly consecrated under the title of SS. Peter and Paul. The architect

Joseph Glavka originally combined the elements of Romanesque, Byzantine and Gothic styles. Thanks to wonderful acoustics the temple was used from the very beginning as a hall for church singing and organ music. In 1944 the church was closed. After mass emigration and arrests it lost almost all parishioners. The last senior priest O. Lukasevich left for Suchava about 1946.Today it is an organ music hall.

Opposite the Armenian Church, at the intersection of Lomonosov and Ukrainksa streets, stands the Ukrainian People’s House. This building served as the center of the Bukovynian Ukrainians’ national life for many years. In November 1918 it became the coordinating center for the establishment of Ukrainian statehood in the territory. The date “1884” on the facade facing Ukrainska Street refers to the foundation of the “People’s Home” Society.

The Cathedral of Assumption of the Virgin Mary (28 Ruska St.) was built in 1820-1821. It was the first stone temple in the center of town, which belonged to the Ukrainian Greek-Catholic Church. In 1820 the well-to-do citizen Tadey Turkul allotted land and money for the construction of the church. On June 10,1821, the Greek-Catholics solemnly entered the newly-built cathedral consecrated under the title of St. Thaddeus – the heavenly patron of the temple’s founder. In 1930-1936 it was materially reconstructed. The project of reconstruction chosen belonged to Dr. Volodymyr Zalozetsky. Architectural supervision was carried out by Josef Legner. Adolf Orikhovski, an artist from Krakow, took part in painting the iconostasis. In Soviet times the temple’s interior was destroyed and used as a storehouse. The iconostasis is the only thing that survived – it was transferred to the Orthodox St. Nicholas’Church. In 1990 the community of the Ukrainian Greek-Catholic Church was restored and the Assumption Cathedral returned.

A little further beyond the Assumption Cathedral, on the left side of Ruska Street, No.35, stands the stone Orthodox Church of St. Nicholas the construction of which was completed in 1939. Its original “twisted” drums of the domes testify to its connection with Romanian religious architecture. The temple of the mid-14 th century in the city of Curtea de Arges, which is depicted on modern Romanian banknote, was used as an example. The northern part of the Chernivtsi temple contains a shrine with part of the wonderworking relics of the great martyr Ivan the New of Suchava whose cult is extremely popular in Bukovyna.

Our walk continues in the district bearing the old name of Judenstadt – the quarter which lived according to old manner and customs. Many Jews inhabited Chernivtsi living side by side with the Orthodox Rusyns,Volokhs, and Turkish families. They came to the city from neighboring Galicia. Most immigrants belonged to Ashkenazim. Their cultural and ethnic complex formed mainly under the influence of German culture. At the close of the 15 th century another wave of refugees came from Spain and Portugal – Sephardim – who had to save themselves from the pursuit of the king’s power and inquisition. About 1710 heder-a primary Jewish religious school for young boys-was built in Chernivtsi. In course of centuries life in this district was closely linked with profiteering and synagogue.

The main highway of Judenstadt – Synagogue Street – today bears the name of Henri Barbusse. In the mid-19 th century a stone classic temple sprang up there and was called “Great Synagogue.” A school, hospital, and a shelter for the poor were attached to the synagogue; mikva – a ritual bath – was arranged in the temple’s basement. In 1865 the whole district was enveloped inflames, but the Great Synagogue remained intact, which gave birth to its miraculous force.

The Jewish hospital was built in Synagogue Street about 1791. From 1854 through 1855 it was reconstructed. In the 1930s a new building appeared nearby on donation of Joseph Schmidt, a singer well known in Europe. In Soviet time the Jewish hospital was turned into city hospital No.2.

The polyphony of Judaic sanctuaries in old Chernivtsi is represented today by a single temple – the small Benjamin’s Synagogue (53 L. Kobylytsia St). It was built in 1923 as a Hasidic kloiz, i.e. “praying house.” Its architectural appearance combines Moresque motifs with Romanesque elements. It is one of a few surviving old synagogues whose interior, primarily mural paintings, have been almost fully preserved.

Also in 1780, supposedly the first stone structure – two-storied General’s house (1 Shkilna St.) – appeared in the “Upper town.” It served as the headquarters for military administration and court; from 1787 it was occupied by the office of the district head, and other institutions. Opposite across the street stands the main guardhouse (Hauptwache).The initial structure has not been preserved – it burnt down during the fire of 1866. Next year, 1867, a stone structure was built, which has survived to this day (18 Holovna St.).

The “Colonel’s House” (22 Holovna St.) built in 1782 is yet another architectural monument. After the fires of 1866 and 1890 it was reconstructed and acquired present-day appearance. At the turn of the 20 th century there was a military casino there. This building was often depicted on old postcards that were printed in the late 1890 s. Today this building is occupied by the Regional puppet theater.

In the late 1781 near the “Colonel’s House” appeared the building of court martial in which resided the military commissar of the territory. Later the building was given the name of Regional chamber, and served as the headquarters of various administrative departments. In the early 20 th century in place of the old Regional chamber sprang up a magnificent stone structure, which has been occupied ever since by the administration of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Chernivtsi oblast.

The construction of the Roman Catholic Church of the Exaltation of the Holy Cross started in 1786. The construction site was acquired on state money near the guardhouse. However, in spite of the financial support on the part of the monarch the construction was delayed for three decades. In the course of this period the belfry collapsed two times, and the church itself suffered from the fire of 1790. In 1909-1910 the tower was reconstructed and given modern look. Eventually, on July 29,1814, the Roman Catholic Church was consecrated. In 1818 according to a legend the “ship” house or Schiffa (corner of i lie Main and Sholom Aleikhem streets) appeared due to two brothers. One was an entrepreneur, and the other, a captain who navigated ships overseas. When the sailor retired, his brother helped him acquire a plot of land in the center of town and build a house. But as long as the captain missed the sea, the building was constructed in the form of a ship: with a narrowed facade like a stem cutting apart the flows of the streets, with a platform on the second floor looking like a deck, and a small tower resembling a mast. In the mornings or in the evenings the old captain went out onto the platform-deck, lit up his smoking pipe and, watching the incessant stream of the noisy street, felt like a real captain of a ship heading for a distant harbor…

The “customs” Church of St. Paraskeva (intersection of M.Zankovetska and Holovna streets) was the first Orthodox stone temple built in Chernivtsi. The old wooden church was built on money of the boyar Leka and consecrated in 1724 in honor of St. Paraskeva. The adjective “customs” was attached to it since during the Moldavian-Turkish period a custom-house was located nearby. The wooden church stood until 1844, when on the initiative of its senior priest Father Andriy Vasylovych, and mainly on his money, the construction of a stone temple began (arch. A. Pavlovsky). In 1862 the church was consecrated by the bishop Yevhen Hakman in honor of the great martyr Parskeva of Serbia. In 1864 the local Ukrainians paid honor to Taras Shevchenko in this church on the occasion of the third anniversary of his death. Today it is a functioning temple of the Ukrainian Orthodox Church.

In 1863 the district Seym made a decision to raise a building for its sessions. In order to workout a project they invited the architect Joseph Glavka, who had just completed a plan of the residence for members of the higher orders of Orthodox clergy. However, the expense statement submitted proved too much expensive, and the project was rejected.

Instead, the deputies instructed officials to buy the family house in Schnirch Street displayed for sale by baron Johann Mustiaz. The quarters were rearranged for new functions, and expanded by two annexes. Today it is the palace of schoolchildren and youth (10 Metropolitan Sheptytsky St.).

The railway station built in Chernivtsi became a real visiting card of Viennese secession in the city. The foundation of the station was laid in a ceremonial atmosphere on September 16,1906, in the presence of the imperial minister of railways Doctor Julius Derschatt. Construction work, which lasted three years, was carried out under the supervision of engineer Elling. The most characteristic feature of modernist style found its reflection in the portal with a stained glass window made of a steel framework and found in the central volume. According to the author’s intention the portal was to symbolize the gates of the city. The refined secession decor of thin flexible lines covering the interior of the central hall is reminiscent of the interior of Viennese railway station Karlpiatz.

At the address 50 the Main Street, stands a three-storied stone building known in Chernivtsi history as “Lypovansky House.” Before WWI this building belonged to Old Believers’ (or lypovansky, as was customary to say) monastery in Bila Krynytsia.The house was acquired by Old Believers on their own money in February 1899. The ground floor was rented to shop owners.

The Cathedral of the Descent of the Holy Spirit was raised in 1844-1864. In 1862 bells weighing 51 double centners were installed in the temple. The Cathedral stands in Metropolitan Yevhen Hakman Street – an outstanding church and public figure of Bukovyna of the 19 th century who headed the Orthodox Church in the territory for about 38 years. A peasant by birth he became the first Ukrainian who took up the episcopal see in Chernivtsi. The mortal remains of the Metropolitan, who died at the age of 79 in Vienna, were brought to Chernivtsi and placed for eternal peace in the altar part of the cathedral. Stately monument to the founder of the cathedral was inaugurated near the temple’s wall in 2006.

Residence of Orthodox metropolitans of Bukovyna and Dalmatia (1864-1882) (nowadays the central buildings of Yuriy Fedkovych Chernivtsi National University) with the status of a cultural monument of national significance is rightly considered one of the most imposing structures in Bukovyna, and the architectural symbol of Chernivtsi.

As early as 1794, in response to application of the local Orthodox nobility, the Austrian power granted permission to build a cathedral and episcopal see. However, because of different reasons it was only in 1863 that the plan of construction was approved. The author of the project, the Czech Joseph Glavka (1831-1908) was assisted by architects Ljaske and Gregor. Construction work lasted with breaks until 1882 and cost an astronomical sum of 1.75 million guldens. The architectural ensemble of the residence was made up of three monumental buildings: the main one, theological seminary, and presbytery. Among premises of the main building the Synodal hall ornamented with marble cannot but delight. The waits revetted with Bukovynian alabaster were decorated with frescos devoted to the figures of early Christianity, prominent events in the history of the Orthodox Church in Bukovyna, and with portraits of Bukovynian Orthodox members of higher orders of clergy. Part of frescos was executed by the historical painter Karl Svoboda. The halls were decorated with portraits of Austrian monarchs from the times when Bukovyna joined the Habsburg Empire. The Ministry of cults and education commissioned the artist Epaminond Buchevsky (1843-1891) to make these canvases. After his death the work was continued by Yevhen Maksymovych.

A special place in architectural respect was occupied by the chapel of Ivan the New of Suchava (1882) from which the construction of the whole Residence began, and which served as a home church.

The right wing of the Residence initially housed theological seminary and Greek-Orthodox theological faculty. The Chernivtsi theological faculty prepared theologians and bishops for the whole South-Eastern Europe. With the arrival of Soviet power it was liquidated. As part of the philosophic and theological faculty it was renewed only in December 1993.

The historical building of the seminary was constructed in the form of a horseshoe that encircled the seminary Church of Three Holy Hierarchs. The first stone of its foundation was laid by Yevhen Hakman in 1867. A number of artists of a high level worked on decorating the temple. The sculptor Anna Gofman executed stucco moldings for the capitals and the tower. The church was painted by the professor-painter from Vienna Karl Jobst and Epaminond Buchevsky.

On returning to the center of town it is better to continue the trip from Philharmonic Society Square. In the course of its history it had different names: during Austrian times – Muchna and Rudolfsplatz, in inter-war period, from 1924- Dakia Square, in Soviet times – Peremoha (Victory) Square, and finally Philharmonic Square. The history of the square started in the late 18 th century, when a market was located here and where they traded mainly in flour. Gradually the square was built up with dwelling, two-storied, stone houses. Here, in 1876, the corner stone was solemnly laid in the foundation of the future building of the Musical society. The plan and estimate were prepared by Alois Bulirtz who took upon himself the supervision of the construction and made a contract with the local architect Emil von Regius. Philharmonic Society began to function in 1876-1877. Decoration of its interiors was carried out by the artist Karl Jobst. At different times prominent artistes performed on its stage, namely Mykola Lysenko, Solomiya Krushelnytska, Arthur Rubinstein, Joseph Schmidt, Enrico Caruso, Paul Morgans, Jack Tibo, and others. From 1905 through 1906 the magnificent “Bristol” Hotel, the dominant of Philharmonic Square and the whole adjacent block, was built on money of the local citizens Joseph Landau and Max Maisner in Viennese secession style in the southern section of the square (1 Philharmonic Square – 11 Zankovetska St.). According to local legends the most expensive prostitutes received their guests in its rooms. On the ground floor there was a restaurant. Of the glorious past remained the inscription “Hotel Bristol” on the facade, and the roof under red tiling. Now it is the hostel of Chernivtsi Medical University.

At the beginning of the Austrian period it seemed nothing foreboded the bright future for this undistinguished city square. In the mid-19 th century the square was called Grain market. Later it was occupied by fish dealers and became Fish market. Reincarnation of this provincial market into a European square took place due to the construction here of a new city theater. In 1907 the monument to the outstanding German dramatist Friedrich Schiller was erected in front of the theater. In his honor the square was renamed Schillerplatz. Today it is one of the main squares of the city – Theater Square.

Citizens of Chernivtsi were always in love with theatrical art. However, the city had no stationary theater for a long time, and dramatic companies that came on tour had to stage their plays in specially equipped premises. In the long run the authorities ordered a project of a City theater at the prestigious Viennese architectural atelier of F.Felner and G.Felmer. However, because of lack of money the construction started only in May 1904 and cost a sum of 600 thousand. The theater became an architectural symbol of Chernivtsi. After the theater was solemnly opened in October 1905, the delighted citizens of Chernivtsi at once named it  “a dream of velvet and gold. ” The city coat of arms  was installed on the pediment, the main  entrance was decorated with the composition of Apollo with lute among personages of antiquedramas. The busts of Shakespeare and Wagner were placed above the windows of the facade. On each side of the the lateral projections there were the stucco representations of the then city coat of arms and the busts of Schubert, Mozart, Schiller and Pushkin; on the northern side, Haydn, Goethe and Beethoven, later appeared I.Shevchenko. Monument to Friedrich Schiller stood before the theater until it was seized by the Romanian chauvinists who dismantled and transferred it in 1922 to the territory of German People’s House. Now monument to the writer Olga Kobylianska stands in front of the theater (arch. A.Skyba and M.Miroshnychenko).

Bukovynian Chamber of Commerce and Crafts (1908-1909) was built in Theater Square to the left of the City Theater. The purpose of this four-storied building was explained by an appropriate signboard in German placed overhead under the allegorical figures of heavenly patrons of trade and crafts, and fourteen majolica shields with the emblems of different crafts, which were inserted above the windows of the second floor and have been preserved more or less intact to our time.

In the latter half of the 1930 s side by side with the Jewish House was raised the Romanian House of Culture. This constructivist building brought considerable discord in the settled ensemble of Theater Square. However, it seemed the customers of the project were not disturbed by this circumstance – on the contrary, it urged them on to further aggression. Romanian authorities intended pulling down the Jewish House as well, which allegedly shaded the Romanian Palace of Culture. However, the Jewish community of Chernivtsi managed, by means of money, to defend their House, and the Romanians had to submit to their neighborhood. From Soviet times the building has been housing Officer’s House.

The main architectural dominant of the former France Joseph Square, which in Soviet times turned into a quiet public garden bounded by Chervonoarmiyska, Metropolitan Glavka, Cathedral and Main streets, was the building of Bukovynian government situated in the southern section of the square. The construction of the building started in spring 1871 under the supervision of the senior building adviser Pavlovsky. The facade was crowned with a heraldic composition: griffins were holding a shield with the representation of Bukovyna’s coat of arms-the head of an aurochs with three stars around. First the government building had three stories. But after the fire that happened in March 1905 and seriously damaged the structure, it was restored and the fourth story was added. This structure was in the epicenter of the Ukrainian revolution in Bukovyna in November 1918. In Soviet times here was the regional committee of the Communist party, now it is one of the buildings of Yu. Fedkovych National University.

If you turn left round the corner of the historical building of District Council, the small O.Popovych Street will bring you to the Jesuit temple of the Heart of Jesus – a wonderful example of neo-Gothic religious building in Chernivtsi. It was built from 1891 through 1894 simultaneously with the cloister complex thanks to the solicitation of missionaries of the Jesuit order headed by Father F. Eberchard. The project was worked out by Joseph Leizner, director of Chernivtsi vocational school. In 1894 Archbishop Severyn of Morava consecrated the temple under the title of the Most Holy Heart of Jesus Christ. Thanks to its outward appearance, quite unusual for Orthodox lands, the temple at once became one of the architectural zests of Bukovynian capital. In Soviet times monks left Chernivtsi. Soviet power first handed over the Roman Catholic Church to the Orthodox Church, and then used it as premises for the State archives of Chernivtsi oblast. Lately divine services have been resumed at the former cloister (building of art school) attached to the temple.

Most temples of pre-Austrian Chernivtsi were Orthodox churches. Old written references to them date back to the late 15 th century. A characteristic feature of the local wooden churches of Moldavian-Bukovynian type (16 th-18 th c.) is the absence of cupola. This tradition is sometimes linked with the obligatory restrictions on the height of Christian temples, which were introduced by Moslem conquerors in territories under their control. The Assumption Church (Novouspenska St.) was built by order of the Moldavian governor of province Mikolaj Alexander Mavrokordat in 1735. The church was granted some privileges so it was called “Princely.”  Senior priests of the temple were exempted from taxes. Besides, they received a certain sum of money for each head of cattle sold in Chernivtsi, both from seller and buyer. During Austrian times the Assumption Church lost its privileged status.

The wooden Church of St. Nicholas built in 1748 in the city outskirts of Selysche (Petro Sahaidachnyi St.) is the only surviving old temple in Chernivtsi of the Moldavian-Turkish period. In local legends it is called “Cossack church.” They say that in different times the great hetmans Petro Sahaidachny and Ivan Mazepa prayed in this church. The boyar Stroyesku, the head of Chernivtsi at that time, was the warden of the Church of St. Nicholas. A tombstone with an epitaph In Moldavian was found near the church. At the dose of the 18 th century the church was put on a stone foundation and rebuilt. In 1864 when the Cathedral of the Descent of the Holy Spirit was built and consecrated, the Church of St. Nicholas became its affiliate. At the beginning of the 20 th century the walls of the church were plastered from the outside and painted with a checkered pattern so that from afar it looks like a brick structure.

Beginnings of Sadagura (Sadagura district of the city), which is situated on the left bank of the Prut River, were caused by the Russian-Turkish war of 1769. At that time the baron Petro-Mikolaj Gartenberg-Sadogurski purchased these lands. The baron brought experienced masters from Germany and founded a mint. First coins were made out of Turkish cannons seized in the battle of Khotyn. The settlement was inhabited by the Germans, Poles, Jews and Ukrainians.

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