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Hlukhiv

Hlukhiv is the district center located at the intersection of motorways Kyiv – Moscow and Kharkiv – Novhorod-Siverskyi. First written reference to it dates back from 1152. It is assumed that its name is formed of the words “hloukh” or “hlukhyi” (deaf), i.e sur­rounded by forests and bogs. In the past it was the center of an appendage principality. Through permanent attacks by nomads the center of the city changed its location several times. In 1352 the frightful epidemic of plague annihilated the whole city. After the Krevo union of 1385 Hlukhiv entered into the incorporated Polish-Lithuanian state, and in 1503, into Muscovy. In the 18th century, by order of Peter I, the Cossack capital was moved there from Baturyn. From 1739 there was a school in Hlukhiv, which prepared singers and musicians for the emperor’s choir and orchestra. The prominent Ukrainian composers M. Berezovsky and D. Bortniansky studied at this school. Unfortunately, because of great fires most of which happened in 1784, historical memorials are very few in the city. However, those surviving are worthy of tourists’ attention.

The Church of St. Nicholas (1695, arch. M. Yefimov, 1 Soborna Sq.) is the oldest building of the city and a wonderful example of Ukrainian baroque. It came into being due to the initiative of Hlukhiv Cap­tain Vasyl Yarotsky. In 1871 the temple was in part reconstructed. Now the sanctuary has a rather exotic appearance among new buildings, and the market-place before the temple in no way reminds one of the past historical grandeur. Although Ukrainian hetmans were elected, and important state and public events took place exactly there. In 1708 infuriated czar Peter I arranged a demonstrative punishment to a doll looking like Ivan Mazepa, and forced the Ukrainian clergy, in the absence of the original, to read an anathema against the doll. Since then the word “Mazeppist” has long been applied to fighters for Ukrainian independence. Promi­nent Hlukhiv citizens were buried in the cemetery near the church. Thus, in 1760 they buried there general Cornet Mykola Danylovych Khanenko (1691-1760), the author of the famous “Diariusha”and “Diary.” His grave was ruined in the 1930 s and renovated in 1993. Many outstanding personalities visited Hlukhiv, among them M.Miklashevsky, H.Skovoroda, Peter III, Catherine II, M.Lermontov, D. Fonvizin, A.Pugachev, N.Gogol,T.Shevchenko.

In place of the former Little Russian collegium in 1912-1913 there was constructed the building of the district and town council (intersection of Rudchenko Sq. and 51 Kyiv-Moscow St.). It is one of the most important buildings of Hlukhiv, raised in modernist style. On one of its pediments you can see the coat of arms of Hlukhiv of hetman times. the Transfiguration Church (arch. A.Kvasov,4Spaska St.) was built in 1765 with the assistance of deputy hetman Hryhoriy Kolohryvyi in palace of the wooden temple that had burnt down. In 1855 archi­tect A.Assing worked out the project of an annex to the western side of the “heated” church. The annex was carried out in 1867. In the first half of the 19th century a belfry built in classical style was added to the church. In the 1930 s it was ruined. In Soviet times the church was closed. In the 1970 s Soviet power intended to pull it down. In the opinion of specialists the temple is close to the family church of Hetman K. Rozumovsky in the village of Lemeshi, which was built by the same architect, and is one of the most artistically perfect temples of Ukraine.

The Church of Three Anastasioses located not far away (1884-1893, arch. A. Hun, 7 Spaska St.) is the most massive sacral building in the city. It appeared due to financial support of broth-ers Mykola and Fedir Tereschenko, and became the burial vault of the family. Although there is information pursuant to which first wooden church was built on money of Anastasia, the widow of Hetman I.Skoropadsky. Ornamental and thematic paintings executed in neo-Byzantine style by the well-known artists, broth­ers A. and P.Svedomsky, have been preserved in the interior of the church. Some icons were painted by V.Vereschagin and F.Zhurav-liova.The image of the Virgin in the upper part of the temple was executed by Mykola Pymonenko.

The revival of Hlukhiv at the close of the 19 th century is linked with the names of the well-known businessmen and patrons of art, brothers Tereschenko. Due to their efforts and investments of over 5 million rubles in gold, there appeared a male and female gymnasia, several schools, a boarding-school for children-orphans. By the early 20th century the main streets were paved with stone-blocks. In 1870 the Tereschenkos were ennobled, choosing for their coat of arms two yellow-blue lions holding a sheaf of wheat. The motto of the family was “Aspiring to public benefit.” After the testament of Artemiy Tereschenko two thirds of the union’s in­come had to be transferred for public affairs. In 1907 thankful townspeople placed an order for a monument to the philan­thropist with In Soviet times the sculpture of Motherland was erected in its place.

In 47 Tereschenko Street there is a family estate, where Mykola Artemovych Tereschenko was born. Near the house there is a water tower ornamented with decorative elements (arch. Rozanov, 1929). A metallic spire completes the tower. Sometimes excur­sionists climb up the tower to see the panorama of the city. It is worth strolling about the downtown area of Hlukhiv and finding buildings of the early 19 th century. In 12 T. Shevchenko St. there is

the building of Tereschenko’s bank. The building in 68 Ter­eschenko St. was identified on old maps as the “post-office.” Under number 42 there are the premises of the former Nobility assembly (1811, arch. A. Karta-shevskv), which are presently oc­cupied by the museum of local lore (tel.: (05444) 23-299, 22-794. 8.00-17.00. lunch break 12.00-13.00. Mo.-day off). Almost in the middle of Kyiv-Moscow Street there is the building of the former male gymnasium (arch. Paul Shleifer) built in 1874. Later the first teacher’s-training institute in Ukraine appeared in Hlukhiv, where 75 stu­dents studied annually. Among the well-known graduates was the outstanding film director Oleksandr Dovzhenko. Now it is Hlukhiv Teacher’s-Training University.

In 1766-1769 architect A. Kvasov together with his students and assistants (Maksim Mostsepanov and Karp Borzakovsky) built in the city the stone Kyiv and Moscow gates of Hlukhiv fortress.

Moscow gate has not been preserved: it burnt down and its remains were demol­ished. The architecture of Kyiv gate (1 Kviv-MoscowSt.) was executed in stylish forms changing from baroque to classicism. It closes the main street of the city on the west side. In the past the gate played not only the role of an observation post, but also that of a custom-house. During World War II it was in part ruined. In the 1950 s it was restored to its original form.

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