In the outskirts of Dnipropetrovsk, not far away from the airport, there is the locality of Stari Kodaky. In 1636 a fortress was built in this place. To realize the design of the French engineer Beauplan, the Polish Seym allotted 100,000 zlotys. The fortress was intended to control communication between Zaporizhia, Black Sea maritime regions and the rest of Ukraine. Concerning the assurances of its creators regarding its invincibility, Bohdan Khmelnytsky aptly noted: “Created by hand, and ruined by hand.” And his prophecy proved correct: just a few months later the fortress was taken by the Cossacks commanded by Ivan Sulima. In 1639 the crown Hetman Stanislaw Konecpolski made an attempt to restore the stronghold after the project of Friedrich Getkant. To provide greater safety a garrison of 800 German mercenaries was stationed at the fortress. However, it had been done in vain: in 1648 the fortress had to capitulate again before the Cossacks of Maksym Nesterenko. The garrison with the personal weapon, property and flags left the fortress, leaving behind cannons. In 1656 a pilot guard was organized there to direct merchant ships through the rapids. Formally it existed until the early 18 th century, when it lost its practical significance. Unfortunately, today only a few fragments of the rampart and the corner bastion that had not been destroyed while digging the quarry, help our imagination reconstruct the high ramparts surrounded with a deep dry ditch spanned by a drawbridge.